Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt’s “Middle Kingdom” refers to a time in its past. From 1975 BC until 1640 BC, it lasted. The Old Kingdom and the New Kingdom were the first and second apex periods of Ancient Egyptian civilisation, respectively. At this time, a single Pharaoh and administration ruled all of Egypt.

During the Middle Kingdom, which dynasties governed Egypt?

The Eleventh, Twelfth, and Thirteenth Dynasties were in power during the Middle Kingdom period. The Fourteenth Dynasty is occasionally mentioned by historians as well.

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Rise of the Middle Kingdom

Egypt was split and experiencing political upheaval during the First Intermediate Period. In contrast to the Eleventh Dynasty, which ruled the south, the Tenth Dynasty dominated northern Egypt. Southern Egypt’s first monarch, Mentuhotep II, rose to prominence around 2000 BC. He launched an offensive towards the north, uniting Egypt under his dominion in the end. With this, the Middle Kingdom era officially began.

The City of Thebes

Thebes was designated as the Egyptian capital under the reign of Mentuhotep II. From that point on, Thebes would continue to be a significant religious and political hub for much of Ancient Egyptian history. Near the metropolis of Thebes, Mentuhotep II constructed his funeral complex and tomb. Later, other New Kingdom pharaohs would also be interred close by at the Valley of the Kings.

For 51 years, Mentuhotep II was in power. He reinstated the pharaoh as Egypt’s god-king throughout that time. He enlarged Egypt’s frontiers and reconstructed the national government.

Peak of the Middle Kingdom

The Twelfth Dynasty oversaw the Middle Kingdom at its height. The ancient pharaohs created a strong standing army to defend Egypt against foreign invasions and to keep them in check. The period of maximum economic success occurred during Pharaoh Amenemhat III’s 45-year rule.


During this time, Ancient Egypt’s arts continued to advance. The “block statue” style of sculpture gained popularity. For another two thousand years, it would remain a staple of Egyptian art. A single rock was used to create the block statue. A man was depicted kneeling with his arms wrapped across his knees.

Literature and writing also advanced. Writing was utilized for pleasure for the first time in Ancient Egyptian history, including the recording of religious doctrine and the writing of stories.

Fall of the Middle Kingdom

The Thirteenth Dynasty marked the beginning of the pharaoh’s rule over Egypt’s decline. The Fourteenth Dynasty, a dynasty of monarchs in northern Egypt, eventually broke away from southern Egypt. The Middle Kingdom disintegrated as the nation descended into chaos, and the Second Intermediate Period got underway.

Intermediate Period II

The Hyksos, a group of foreign invaders, ruled throughout the Second Intermediate Period and are its most well-known aspect. Up until about 1550 BC, the Hyksos governed northern Egypt from their capital city of Avaris.

Interesting Facts Regarding Egypt’s Middle Kingdom

The Middle Kingdom’s pharaohs frequently appointed their sons as coregents, which was akin to a vice-pharaoh.

One of the Middle Kingdom’s most prominent rulers was the Pharaoh Senusret III. Because he personally led his forces into battle, he is frequently referred to as a “warrior-king.”

Some people refer to the Middle Kingdom as Egypt’s “classical age” or “The Period of Reunification.”

Itj Tawy, a new capital city, was constructed during the Twelfth Dynasty.