Lebanon | History, Capital, Language, Flag, Facts & Geography of Lebanon

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History of Lebanon:

Thousands of years ago, people began to settle in Lebanon. One of the oldest cities in the world that has been inhabited continuously is Byblos.

The Phoenician Empire first appeared in Lebanon around 1500 BC. Their culture developed and permeated the Mediterranean because they were a nautical people. Up until about 300 BC, the Phoenicians ruled the region before Cyrus the Great’s Persian Empire overthrew them. Tyre was the most well-known Phoenician city. Tyre was destroyed by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. Over time, a number of other empires, including the Roman, Arab, and ultimately Ottoman, would rule over Lebanon.

France seized control of Lebanon following World War I, when the Ottoman Empire fell. Lebanon won its freedom from France in 1943. Since gaining independence, Lebanon has fought two wars: one with Israel and one internal civil conflict.

Information about Lebanon:

Capital Beirut
Population 5,353,930 (Source: 2023 worldometer)
Major Cities Beirut (capital), Tripoli, Zahlé, Byblos, Tyre, Sidon, Batroun, Baalbek, Jounieh
Borders Israel in the south, Syria in the north and the Anti-Lebanon mountains form for long stretches the border between Lebanon and Syria in the east and maritime borders with Cyprus.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) $31,712,128,254 (2022 worldometer)
Currency Lebanese pound (LBP)

Flag of Lebanon:

Lebanon Economy Key Industries:

Lebanon Major Industries: banking, tourism, food processing, jewelry, cement, textiles, mineral and chemical products, wood and furniture products, oil refining, metal fabricating

Lebanon Agricultural Products: citrus, grapes, tomatoes, apples, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco; sheep, goats

Lebanon Natural Resources: limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region, arable land

Lebanon Major Exports: authentic jewelry, inorganic chemicals, miscellaneous consumer goods, fruit, tobacco, construction minerals, electric power machinery and switchgear, textile fibers, paper

Lebanon Major Imports: petroleum products, cars, medicinal products, clothing, meat and live animals, consumer goods, paper, textile fabrics, tobacco

The Geography of Lebanon:

Total Size of Lebanon: 10,452 km² (source: wikipedia)

Geographical Low Point of Lebanon: Mediterranean Sea 0 m

Geographical High Point of Lebanon: Qurnat as Sawda’ 3,088 m

Climate of Lebanon: Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows

General Terrain of Lebanon: narrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains

World Region or Continent of Lebanon: Middle East

Geographical Coordinates: 33 50 N, 35 50 E

The People of  Lebanon & Culture

Lebanon Government Type: republic

Lebanon Nationality: Lebanese (singular and plural)

Lebanon National Holiday: Independence Day, 22 November (1943)

Lebanon Independence: 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)

Lebanon National Symbol: cedar tree

Lebanon National Anthem or Song: Kulluna lil-watan (All Of Us, For Our Country!)

Lebanon Languages Spoken: Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian

Lebanon Religions: Muslim 59.7% (Shi’a, Sunni, Druze, Isma’ilite, Alawite or Nusayri), Christian 39% (Maronite Catholic, Greek Orthodox, Melkite Catholic, Armenian Orthodox, Syrian Catholic, Armenian Catholic, Syrian Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Chaldean, Assyrian, Copt, Protestant), other 1.3%

Interesting Facts about Lebanon:

Due to its numerous religious and ethnic minorities as well as its traditionally neutral position, Lebanon is referred regarded as the “Switzerland of the Middle East”.

Although Arabic is the official language in Lebanon, French and English are also commonly spoken.

With Phoenician, Roman, Byzantine, and Arab civilisation influences, Lebanon has a rich historical and cultural legacy.

Foods like hummus, falafel, tabbouleh, and shawarma are popular in the nation due to its delectable cuisine.

With a long history of poetry, literature, and traditional folk music, Lebanon boasts a thriving arts and music scene.

Numerous religious groups, including Muslims, Christians, Druze, and others live in the nation together in largely peaceful conditions.

With its numerous landscapes, which include the Mediterranean coastline, mountains, valleys, and the well-known cedar woods of the Lebanon Mountains, Lebanon is renowned for its breathtaking natural beauty.

One of the oldest continuously inhabited towns in the world and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos is located in modern-day Lebanon.

The Mediterranean climate of Lebanon is characterized by moderate winters and scorching summers.

There is a sizable Lebanese diaspora, with many Lebanese residing overseas, especially in nations like Brazil, the United States, Canada, France, and Australia.

The cedar tree, which appears on the nation’s flag and stands for resiliency and strength, is Lebanon’s national emblem.

Lebanon is well-known for its financial services and has a thriving banking industry.

The nation has a long history of producing wine, and Lebanese wines are well-known and adored all over the world.

Throughout its history, Lebanon has suffered political and socioeconomic difficulties, including a civil war that lasted from 1975 to 1990.

Some of the best-preserved Roman temples can be seen at the Baalbek Roman ruins in eastern Lebanon.

Khalil Gibran and Amin Maalouf, two well-known authors from Lebanese literature, are among its notable alumni.

Being highly regarded in society, Lebanon has a comparatively high literacy rate.

People from Lebanon are renowned for their friendliness, generosity, love of conversation, and zest for life.