What is Flowering Plants?
A flowering plant is a type of vascular plant that produces flowers for reproduction. Flowering plants produce seeds in the fruit. The scientific name of flowering plants is angiosperms.
Life-Cycle of a Flowering Plant
Flowering plants follow a specific life cycle.
Seed – They begin life as seeds. Seeds are like saplings. They have a hard outer shell that protects the seed embryo inside.
Germination – Seed ends up on the ground. It needs air, water and soil to grow. When a seed begins to germinate, it is called germination. The first growth will usually be a few small roots. Then the stem will grow.
Sprout or seedling – When the first sign of life appears in the ground, it is called a sprout or seedling.
Mature plant – The seedling will continue to grow into an adult plant complete with leaves, roots and stem.
Flowering – Mature plants will flower. Through pollination, the flower will produce seeds. When the seed ends on the ground, the cycle begins again.
Flowers are the reproductive organs of the flowering plant.
The main structures of a flower include:
Sepal – The sepals are the supporting structures for the petals. It is usually green in color which helps to protect and hold the petals. The set of sepals is called the calyx.
Petal – Petals are the brightly colored leaves of the flower. The petals are often shiny and colorful to attract insects that aid pollination. The set of petals is called the corolla.
Stamen – Stamens are the part of a flower that produces pollen. There are two main parts of the stamen: the filament and the anther.
Filament – The filament is the stalk containing the anther.
Anther – The anther is made up of lobes attached to the filament. These lobes contain vesicles containing pollen.
Pistil – The pistil is the female part of the flower. It contains carpel and stigma.
Stigma – The stigma is the place where pollen grains are received. The stigma can be located at the end of the stalk called a type.
Carpel – The carpel is the ovary of the flower and contains the ovule as the potential seed.
Fruit is a means by which many plants disperse their seeds. The fruit is formed after the flower is pollinated. The ovule of the pistil will become a seed and the flower will turn into a fruit.
The seed is the embryo of the plant. Kind of like a small tree. Seeds come in all sizes, shapes and colors depending on the type of crop. Inside the seed is the plant embryo, food for the embryo, and the seed coat to protect it.
Seeds can be dispersed by a number of means, including air, water, and animals. Some seeds are light and have feathers or wings that help them stay suspended in the air. Other particles can float on water and disperse by passing through rivers and streams. There are still other seeds with delicious fruit that animals eat and then disperse in animal feces.
For the ovary to become a seed, it must receive pollen. Insects and birds can play an important role in plant pollination. When an insect or bird is attracted to the bright color of a flower, it picks up the pollen on it. As they move from plant to plant, they move pollen from one plant to another. This helps plants reproduce by producing seeds.