Highlights of Cleopatra VII:
|Occupation||Pharaoh of Egypt|
|Died||August 30, 30 BC|
|Known for||The last pharaoh of Ancient Egypt|
Princess by birth
Cleopatra was an Egyptian princess at birth. Her father was Ptolemy XII, a Pharaoh. Growing up, Cleopatra was intelligent and clever. Because she was his favorite child, she learnt a lot from her father about how the nation was run.
Egypt has been ruled by Cleopatra’s family for 300 years. They belonged to the Ptolemy dynasty, which Alexander the Great of Greece had founded. They were actually of Greek ancestry, despite the fact that they controlled Egypt. Greek was the language Cleopatra learned to speak, read, and write. Cleopatra, unlike many of her family, was able to speak many other languages, including Latin and Egyptian.
Death of Her Father
Cleopatra’s father passed away when she was eighteen years old. She and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII were both given the throne by him. After getting married, Cleopatra and her brother, who was then ten years old, agreed to jointly rule Egypt.
Cleopatra, who was significantly older, assumed power as Egypt’s primary ruler right away. But as he grew older, her brother started to crave greater authority. He eventually drove Cleopatra from the palace and ascended to the throne.
Julius Caesar came in Egypt in 48 BC. Cleopatra entered the palace covertly, hiding inside a carpet that had been rolled up. Caesar was persuaded to assist her in regaining the throne during their meeting. At the Battle of the Nile, Caesar routed Ptolemy’s army, and Ptolemy drowned while attempting to flee. Then Cleopatra regained control. After Ptolemy XIV’s death, she would rule with her son Ptolemy Caesarion after initially co-reigning with another younger brother, Ptolemy XIV.
Ruling as Pharaoh
Julius Caesar and Cleopatra fell in love. Caesarion was the name of their child. While in Rome, Cleopatra lived at one of Caesar’s country estates.
Despite her love for Caesar, Cleopatra preferred that Egypt remain apart from Rome. She established trade with numerous Arab countries and developed the Egyptian economy. Because she embraced Egyptian culture and the nation was successful under her rule, she was well-liked by the Egyptian populace.
When Julius Caesar was killed in 44 BC, Cleopatra went back to Egypt. Marc Antony was one of the three commanders who rose to power in Rome after Caesar’s death. Cleopatra and Marc Antony fell in love after meeting in 41 BC. They also came together militarily to oppose Octavian, another powerful figure in Rome.
The legitimate heir to Julius Caesar was Octavian. Cleopatra desired for her son, Caesarion, to succeed his father as Caesar’s heir and eventually govern Rome. Marc Antony might be able to assist her in achieving this, she hoped.
To combat Octavian, Cleopatra and Marc Antony joined their army. At the Battle of Actium, the two armies clashed. After being routed by Octavian, Antony and Cleopatra were forced to flee to Egypt.
Cleopatra’s demise is cloaked in romance and mystery. Marc Antony returned to the battlefield after fleeing to Egypt in an effort to recover and triumph over Octavian. He instantly understood that Octavian was going to seize him. When Antony learned that Cleopatra had not actually passed away, he committed suicide. Cleopatra was devastated to learn that Antony had passed away. By permitting a venomous cobra to bite her, she committed suicide.
Egypt was ruled by Octavian after Cleopatra passed away, and it joined the Roman Empire. The Egyptian Empire and the Ptolemaic dynasty were overthrown by her death. She ruled as Egypt’s final pharaoh.
A Few Interesting Cleopatra VII Facts
At least seven languages, including Greek and Egyptian, could be spoken by Cleopatra.
She asserted that she was the Egyptian goddess Isis in a new body.
Marc Antony declared her son Caesarion to be Julius Caesar’s legitimate heir.
As the first Roman emperor, Octavian adopted the name Augustus.
Many plays and films have been made on Cleopatra, including the well-known 1963 Elizabeth Taylor picture.