Ancient Egypt | History, Definition, Government, Culture & Facts

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One of the greatest and most powerful civilizations in recorded history was ancient Egypt. The period from 3150 BC to 30 BC lasted more than 3000 years.

The River Nile

Ancient Egypt’s civilization existed in northeastern Africa near the Nile River. A large portion of ancient Egypt’s wealth came from the Nile. Great Egyptian towns grew up along the Nile as the Egyptians learned irrigation techniques and were able to use the Nile’s water to grow abundant and lucrative crops. The Nile gave the Egyptians access to food, land, water, and transportation. Each year, large floods would occur, bringing with them fertile soil for food production.

Periods and Kingdoms

The Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom are the three main kingdoms that historians typically use to categorize ancient Egypt’s history. These were the eras when ancient Egypt was at its best. The transitional periods are the intervals between the Kingdoms.


The culture of ancient Egypt was extremely diverse and included writing, art, administration, and religion. Government and religion were intertwined because the Pharaoh, who oversaw both, was the head of both. Another crucial aspect of governing the government was writing. Scribes were the only ones who could read and write, and they were respected leaders.

Pyramids and Treasure

Egyptian pharaohs were frequently interred in enormous pyramids or private tombs. To aid them in the afterlife, they thought they required treasure to be buried with them. Archaeologists can study a large number of carefully preserved artifacts and tombs as a result to learn more about how ancient Egyptians lived.

End of the Empire

Around 700 BC, the Ancient Egyptian Empire started to decline. A handful of other civilizations overcame it. The Assyrian Empire was the first to conquer Egypt, and the Persian Empire did it around a hundred years later. Alexander the Great of Greece invaded Egypt in 332 BC and established his own dynasty, the Ptolemaic Dynasty. In 30 BC, the Romans finally arrived, and Egypt was annexed by Rome.

Fascinating Information about Ancient Egypt

Both men and women in Egypt wore makeup. They believed it to have medicinal properties and that it shielded their skin from the sun.

Moldy bread was used to treat illnesses.

One of the earliest civilizations to develop writing was theirs. Additionally, they wrote on papyrus paper using ink.

Mathematicians and scientists predominated among the ancient Egyptians. They created a wide range of things, including as tools for construction, medicines, cosmetics, the calendar, the agricultural plow, musical instruments, and even toothpaste.

In the Bible, ancient Egypt is a significant topic. For many years, the Israelites were kept there as slaves. Moses guided them to the Promised Land and assisted them in escaping.

Typically, the pharaoh kept his or her hair hidden. Regular people were not supposed to see it.

In ancient Egypt, cats were revered as sacred animals.

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