The Roman Republic controlled Ancient Rome for 500 years. This type of administration permitted citizens to choose their own representatives. It had an intricate legal system, a constitution, and elected officials like senators. Many of the policies and institutions of this regime served as the foundation for contemporary democracies.
Who were the Roman Republic’s rulers?
The Roman Republic was governed by a variety of figures and organizations. There were numerous degrees and titles of elected officials known as magistrates. The Roman government was extremely convoluted and had numerous councils and leaders. Some of the names and what they did are as follows:
Consuls: The consul was the head of the Roman Republic. The consul held a position of great authority. There were always two consuls elected, and they only held office for a year in order to prevent the consul from becoming a king or dictator. In addition, if the consuls couldn’t agree on something, they may override one another. The consuls held a variety of authority; they made decisions regarding the laws, tax rates, and when to declare war.
Senators: The Senate was a collection of eminent decision-makers who provided advice to the consuls. Typically, the consuls followed the Senate’s recommendations. Senators are chosen for a lifetime.
Plebeian Council – The Peoples Assembly was another name for the Plebeian Council. The plebeians, or members of the common people, used this method to choose their own judges, adopt laws, and hold court.
Tribunes: Tribunes were the Plebeian Council’s delegates. The Senate’s laws could be overruled by them.
Governors: Rome required a local leader as it conquered new territories. A governor would be chosen by the Senate to lead the nation or province. The local Roman army would be under the governor’s command, and he or she would also be in charge of tax collection. Proconsuls were another name for governors.
Aedile – An aedile was a city official in charge of maintaining public structures and overseeing public events. Many politicians would turn into aediles in order to host big public festivals and earn support from the populace in order to be elected to a higher office, such as consul.
Censor: The Censor conducted the census and tallied the population. They also had duties related to upholding public morals and managing public finances.
There was no definite written constitution for the Roman Republic. The constitution was really more of a set of principles and rules that were handed down from father to son. It established independent governmental branches and power balances.
Were all individuals treated fairly?
No, people received varying treatment depending on their citizenship, gender, and level of wealth. Women were denied the ability to vote or occupy public office. Additionally, your vote power increased if you had more money. Governors, Senators, and Consuls were all members of the wealthy nobility. Although it may seem unfair, this represented a significant shift from earlier civilizations where the common person had no voice at all. Through the Assembly and their Tribunes, the common people in Rome could unite and wield significant influence.