The City of Rome | Italy, History, Population, Climate, & Facts

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The ancient Roman civilization’s capital was the city of Rome. It was situated close to central Italy’s west coast. Rome now serves as Italy’s capital. The city was initially modest but expanded as the empire did. In ancient times, the city was home to nearly a million people at one time. For more than a millennium, the city served as the global epicenter of power.

Roads in Rome

Rome was approached by a number of important Roman highways. The primary thoroughfares heading into Rome include the Via Appia, the Via Aurelia, the Via Cassia, and the Via Salaria. The Latin word for “road” is “via.” There were a lot of paved streets inside the city proper as well.


Numerous aqueducts were used to supply water to the city. While the wealthy had running water in their homes, the majority of people relied on citywide water fountains for their water supply. Additionally, there were lots of public bathhouses where people could bathe and mingle.

Creation of Rome

According to Roman mythology, the half-god twins Romulus and Remus founded Rome on April 21, 753 BC. The first King of Rome, Romulus, was assassinated, and the city was given his name.

Seven Hills

Aventine Hill, Caelian Hill, Capitoline Hill, Esquiline Hill, Palatine Hill, Quirinal Hill, and Viminal Hill were the seven hills on which the ancient city of Rome was founded. On Palatine Hill, it is supposed that Romulus founded the first city.

The Forum

The Forum served as the hub of the city and of Roman public life. This was a rectangular plaza where trade and other public activities might occur, surrounded by government structures like basilicas and temples of the gods. The forum hosted a large number of important local events, including elections, speeches in front of large crowds, court cases, and triumphal processions.

There were numerous significant structures near or in the forum. To name a few of them:

The Regia – The Regia was the residence of Rome’s first rulers. Later, it was transformed into the Pontifex Maximus’ office, which served as the position’s title.

The Comitium – The Comitium is Rome’s primary political and judicial hub as well as the site of the Assembly’s main meetings.

Temple of Caesar –The primary temple where Julius Caesar was honored after his passing is known as the Temple of Caesar.

Saturn Temple: The shrine to the agricultural deity.

Tabularium – The principal records office in ancient Rome was called the Tabularium.

Rostra: A podium where speakers would take the stage.

Senate Curia – The Senate convened at the Senate Curia.

The Septimius Severus Arch is a colossal triumphal arch.

Later, the forum would grow so packed with people and structures that many significant events would have to be held in other parts of the city.

Other Structures

Numerous other well-known and significant structures, like the Temple of Jupiter, the Colosseum, the Circus Maximus, the Pantheon, and Pompey’s Theatre, could be found in the heart of Rome.
Stone, concrete, and marble were frequently used in the construction of both wealthy people’s residences and major government structures. The impoverished, meanwhile, lived in wooden houses. These residences posed a significant fire risk, and Rome has historically had numerous devastating fires.

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