History of Sudan:
The land of Sudan has been inhabited by humans for thousands of years. The first great empire to appear was that of the Kushites. In the 8th century BC, Kush grew stronger and even took control of Egypt. This lasted until 590 BC, when the Egyptian army plundered the Kushite capital Napata and pushed the Kushites to settle in Meroe and establish the Meroitic kingdom which lasted until the 4th century AD .
Sudan became a group of small independent kingdoms until 1820 when Egypt conquered the northern part of the country. In 1881, a religious leader named Muhammad ibn Abdalla came to power. His followers were called Ansars, which means disciples. Abdalla led an uprising in 1885.
Sudan became an independent country in 1956. A civil war immediately broke out between the southern regions and the Islamic government. It lasted 17 years, then resumed in 1983. During the second civil war, it is estimated that more than two million people died. In 2011, South Sudan separated from Sudan and became an independent country.
Information about Sudan:
|Population||48,338,776 (Source: 2023 worldometer)|
|Major Cities||Khartoum (capital), Omdurman, Nyala, Port Sudan, Kassala, Al-Ubayyid, Gedaref, Kūstī, Wad Madani|
|Borders||Libya, Egypt, Chad, the Central African Republic, South Sudan, Ethiopia, and Eritrea|
|Gross Domestic Product (GDP)||$51,662,241,775(2022 worldometer)|
|Currency||Sudanese dinar (SDD)|
Flag of Sudan:
Sudan Economy Key Industries:
Sudan Major Industries: oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly
Sudan Agricultural Products: cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock
Sudan Natural Resources: petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower
Sudan Major Exports: oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar
Sudan Major Imports: foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat
The Geography of Sudan:
Total Size of Sudan: 1.886 million km² (source: wikipedia)
Geographical Low Point of Sudan: Red Sea 0 m
Geographical High Point of Sudan: Kinyeti 3,187 m
Climate of Sudan: Tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
General Terrain of Sudan: generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in far south, northeast and west; desert dominates the north
World Region or Continent of Sudan: Africa
Geographical Coordinates: 15 00 N, 30 00 E
The People of Sudan & Culture
Sudan Government Type: Government of National Unity (GNU) – the National Congress Party (NCP) and Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) formed a power-sharing government under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA); the NCP, which came to power by military coup in 1989, is the majority partner; the agreement stipulates national elections for the 2008 – 2009 timeframe.
Sudan Nationality: Sudanese (singular and plural)
Sudan National Holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1956)
Sudan Independence: 1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)
Sudan National Symbol: secretary bird
Sudan National Anthem or Song: Nahnu Djundulla Djundulwatan (We Are the Army of God and of Our Land)
Sudan Languages Spoken: Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English
Sudan Religions: Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum)
Interesting Facts about Sudan:
Pyramids are always associated with Egypt, but did you know that Sudan is home to more pyramids than Egypt? In fact, it has the world’s largest collection of pyramids in one place, with over 200 pyramids.
The country’s name comes from the Arabic word bilad al-sudan, meaning “land of the black people”.
It was in Sudan that the Nile River was formed. The White Nile and the Blue Nile are two tributaries that join Khartoum to become the Nile River before flowing into Egypt.
The war in Darfur began in February 2003 between nomadic Arab tribes encroaching on settled lands of black agricultural tribes. The conflict increased as the Sudanese government sided with the nomadic Arabs, causing non-Arab tribes to rebel. About 400,000 people were killed and more than 2.5 million displaced during the war. According to the United Nations (UN), the civil war in the Darfur region is considered “one of the worst nightmares in recent history”.
With 114 indigenous languages and more than 500 accents, Sudan has a diverse multilingual population.
Northern Sudan is very dry and prone to intense dust storms called haboobs, which can block out the sun and reduce visibility to zero.
The conflict between Sudan and South Sudan is the longest civil war in Africa, lasting from 1955 to 1972 and then from 1983 to 2005. The war has left more than 2.5 million Sudanese dead and more than 4 million displaced.
Sudan experienced one of the first and most active women’s movements in the African and Arab world in the 1960s and 1970s. It became the first country to have a female parliamentarian in Africa and the Middle East (1965 ) and a female Minister of Health (1974) ). Sudan is also the first Muslim and Arab country to have women as judges, filmmakers, soccer referees, soldiers and police.
Sudan is the world’s leading producer of gum arabic (80%). It is a binding agent found in gum, shampoo, soft drinks, gummy bears, and many other common products.
The Blue Bell wreck is a famous site for divers in Sudan. It was created from a shipwreck in 1977, when a cargo of cars, trucks and Toyota tractors was scattered. It is also known as the “Toyota train wreck”.
Once there was an underwater village in the Red Sea in Sudan. Famous oceanographer Jacques Cousteau created this project in 1962 to prove that humans could live underwater. Today, only the ruins of the underwater garage remain.
Slavery remains a widespread problem in Sudan, where many children, women and men are subjected to forced labor, sex trafficking or recruitment as child soldiers.
Sudan is one of the poorest and least developed countries in the world, with 46.5% of the population living below the poverty line.