Ramses II | Biography, Tomb, Mummy, Ancient Egypt

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Highlights of Ramses II:

Occupation Pharaoh of Egypt
Born 1303 BC
Died 1213 BC
Reign 1279 BC to 1213 BC (66 years)
Known for The greatest pharaoh of Ancient Egypt


Early Years

Around 1303 BC, Ramses II was born in ancient Egypt. His mother was Queen Tuya, and his father was Pharaoh Sethi I. He was given his grandpa Ramses I’s name.

Ramses was raised in Egypt’s royal court. He received a good education and was raised to be a leader in Egypt. When Ramses was about 5 years old, his father was crowned pharaoh. At the time, Ramses’ elder brother was the prince of Egypt and the rightful heir to the throne. Ramses’ older brother passed away, nevertheless, when he was about 14 years old. Ramses II was the next in line to rule Egypt as pharaoh.

Egyptian prince

Ramses became the prince of Egypt at the age of fifteen. He also wed Nefertari and Isetnofret, his two chief wives. Alongside Ramses, Nefertari would reign and rise to prominence on her own.

Ramses participated in his father’s military operations as a prince. He was in charge of battles by the time he was 22.

Becoming Pharaoh

Ramses’ father passed away when he was 25 years old. In the year 1279 BC, Ramses II became pharaoh of Egypt. He was the third ruler of the 19th dynasty in Egypt.

Military Leader

Ramses II led the Egyptian army in battles with the Hittites, Syrians, Libyans, and Nubians when he was pharaoh. He increased the size of the Egyptian empire and fortified its borders.

The combat of Kadesh was arguably the most well-known combat fought under Ramses’ leadership. The earliest known conflict in history took place in this battle. Ramses engaged the Hittites in combat close to Kadesh. Ramses led his 20,000-man army in battle against the 50,000-man Hittite army. Ramses came home as a military hero despite the fact that the conflict was unresolved (no one truly prevailed).

Later, Ramses would sign with the Hittites one of the earliest significant peace agreements in human history. Through the remainder of Ramses’ rule, this contributed to the creation of a tranquil northern boundary.


Ramses II was a skilled builder as well. He constructed numerous new buildings as well as various reconstructions of Egypt’s ancient temples. The following is a list of some of his most well-known construction accomplishments.

Ramesseum –  The Ramesseum is a sizable temple complex that was once situated close to Thebes on the west bank of the Nile. It was Ramses II’s Mortuary Temple. The enormous figure of Ramses in the temple is well-known.

Abu Simbel –  Ramses ordered the construction of the Abu Simbel temples in southern Egypt’s Nubian area. There are four enormous statues of Ramses in seated positions at the entrance to the bigger temple. They stand 66 feet tall on average each.

Pi-Ramesses – Ramses also constructed a new Egyptian capital city by the same name. Under Ramses’ administration, it expanded and grew in size until being abandoned.

Tomb and Death

Ramses II passed away at about 90 years old. He was laid to rest in the Valley of the Kings, but later, to protect it from thieves, his mummy was transferred. The mummy is currently housed in Cairo’s Egyptian Museum.

Interesting Ramses II facts

Ozymandias, Ramesses the Great, and Ramesses II are some of Ramses’ other names.

In the Battle of Kadesh, an estimated 5,000 chariots were employed.

According to some historians, Ramses was the biblical king from whom Moses asked that he release the Israelites.

Over the course of his lengthy life, it’s estimated that he had close to 200 kids.

After his death, his son Merneptah ascended to the throne. He had thirteen sons, and Merneptah was about 60 years old when he ascended to the throne.