Mesopotamia Science, Inventions, and Technology

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The ancient Mesopotamian civilizations made significant contributions to science and technology.


The Sumerians’ invention of writing was arguably the most significant development accomplished by the Mesopotamians. For more information on Sumerian writing, see here. The first set of written rules, known as Hammurabi’s Code, and the first significant work of literature, known as the Epic of Gilgamesh, both appeared after the advent of writing.

The Wheel

The earliest wheel ever unearthed was uncovered in Mesopotamia, despite the fact that archaeologists are unsure of who exactly invented the wheel. The Sumerians probably utilized the wheel for the first time to make pottery in 3500 BC, and they probably employed it for their chariots in around 3200 BC.


Similar to how we use base 10, the Mesopotamians had a number system with a base of 60. They used a 60 second minute and a 60 minute hour, which is still the way we divide time today. The circle was divided into 360 degrees as well.

They were proficient in a variety of mathematical concepts, including fractions, quadratic and cubic equations, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. This was crucial for maintaining records and for some of their big construction projects.

For various geometric shapes including rectangles, circles, and triangles, the Mesopotamians developed methods for calculating the circumference and area. They may have even known the Pythagorean Theorem before Pythagoras recorded it, according to some evidence. They might have even found pi by calculating the circumference of a circle.


The Mesopotamian astronomers were able to track the motions of the Moon, planets, and stars because to their sophisticated math. One significant accomplishment was the capacity to forecast the motions of many planets. This required reasoning, math, and a scientific procedure.

The first calendar was developed by the Mesopotamians by monitoring the Moon’s phases. It was the ancestor of both the Jewish and Greek calendars and had 12 lunar months.


The Babylonians achieved a number of medical advancements. To diagnose and treat ailments with different lotions and medications, they employed reasoning and medical records.


Numerous technological advancements were made by the Mesopotamians. They were the first to employ the potter’s wheel to create better pottery, irrigation to supply their crops with water, bronze metal (and later iron metal) to create robust tools and weapons, and looms to weave wool into cloth.

Facts About Mesopotamian Science, Inventions, and Technology

One of the Seven Ancient Wonders of the World, the Walls of Babylon, were originally regarded as such. Actually, the entire city was enclosed by two enormous walls. The walls, which were about 23 feet wide and 35 feet tall, are thought to have been nearly 50 kilometers long. Along the wall, there were also enormous towers that might have been hundreds of feet tall.

The basic device known as the Archimedes’ Screw may have been created by the Mesopotamians. The water would have been raised to the levels required by the plants in the renowned Hanging Gardens of Babylon thanks to this.

In order to make pottery and artwork last longer, the Assyrians created glasswork as well as glazes.

It has been discovered that Nineveh, the capital of the Assyrian Empire, was supplied with water via 18 distinct canals.

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