History of Ancient Rome | Government, Religion & Facts

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There is some obscurity about Rome’s early past. Many of Rome’s earliest historical documents were destroyed in the city’s 390 BC siege by barbarians. We now have a clearer understanding of how Rome was probably founded because to the combination of historical researchers and archaeologists.

When Rome Was Founded

The history of Rome’s founding is told in a number of different ways. Others are mythological tales narrated by poets and novelists, some of which are more historically based.

Historical – Around 1000 BC is probably when Rome was originally established. Palatine Hill was chosen for the first settlement because it could be readily fortified. The six other hills surrounding Palatine were also populated over time. The village expanded and developed into a city. Between the Capitoline and Palatine hills, a public space was created that later came to be known as the Roman Forum.

Mythical: According to Roman mythology, the twins Romulus and Remus built Rome in 753 BC. Romulus killed Remus and succeeded to the throne as the first king of Rome while establishing the colony on Palatine Hill. For additional information on the myth of Romulus and Remus, click here.

What is the origin of the name “Rome”?

According to mythology and history, Romulus, the city’s founder, gave it its name. Scholars of history and archaeology have advanced further hypotheses regarding the origins of the name Rome. It might have originated from the Etruscan word “rumon” for the Tiber River.

Settlement of Italy

Many distinct peoples settled in Italy at the time Rome was first emerging. These included the Sabines, the Etruscans, the Greeks, and the Latin peoples (who were the first to settle Rome). Powerful Etruscans inhabited the area around Rome. They most certainly had a substantial impact on Rome’s early development and culture. Etruscans were among the kings of ancient Rome.

The Roman kings

Kings ruled over Rome prior to the establishment of the Roman Republic. Beginning with Romulus in 753 BC, seven rulers are mentioned in the history of Rome. The populace chose each ruler for life. The monarch, who presided over both the government and the Roman religion, possessed great influence. A 300-man body known as the senate served as the king’s subordinates. During the reign of the Roman Empire, senators had little actual power. They acted more as the king’s counsellors and assisted him in running the administration.

Beginning of the Roman Republic

Tarquin the Proud reigned as Rome’s final emperor. Tarquin was a brutal and ruthless monarch. In the end, Tarquin was driven from the city by an uprising of the Roman populace and the senate. In 509 BC, they established a new republican system of governance known as the Roman Republic.

Under the Roman Republic, two elected officials known as consuls ran the city of Rome. The senate gave advice to the consuls, who had a one-year term. Rome grew throughout the republic to become one of the most influential civilizations in human history.

Facts Worth Knowing About Rome’s Early History

Another account of Rome’s founding by the Trojan hero Aeneas, who lived many years before Romulus and Remus, was provided by the poet Virgil.

Later, many of the richest and most well-known Romans, including Augustus, Mark Antony, and Cicero, made Palatine Hill their home. The hill offered pleasant views and clean air because it is around 230 feet above the city.

There were just 100 senators in Rome at the time of its founding. Later additions brought the total up to 300 by the time the country was founded.

Roman historians like Livy and Varro have provided us with a lot of the information we know about early Rome.