The cradle of civilisation is referred to as ancient Mesopotamia. Here, the earliest cities and empires developed. The timeline will show you how often authority shifted during this region’s prehistoric history. It passed through the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, back to the Babylonians, Assyrians, and ultimately the Persians.
5000 BC – The Sumerians build the first settlements and cities in 5000 BC. They farm a lot of land using irrigation.
4000 BC – The Sumer established strong city-states approximately 4000 BC, and they erected enormous ziggurats in the middle of their cities as temples to their deities.
3500 BC – Several Sumerian city-states, including Ur, Uruk, Eridu, Kish, Lagash, and Nippur, populate a large portion of lower Mesopotamia.
3300 BC – The Sumerians create the first written language in 3300 BC. They engrave words on clay tablets using photographs.
3200 BC – The Sumerians start using wheels on their vehicles around 3200 BC.
3000 BC – The Sumerians begin to use a base-60 number system to implement mathematics around 3000 BC.
2700 BC – The city-state of Ur is ruled by the illustrious Sumerian King Gilgamesh in 2700 BC.
2400 BC – The Akkadian language overtakes Sumerian as the main spoken language in Mesopotamia around 2400 BC.
2330 BC – The majority of the Sumerian city states are subjugated by the Akkadian king Sargon I in 2330 BC, who also founds the world’s first empire, the Akkadian Empire.
2250 BC – King Naram-Sin of the Akkadians enlarges the empire to include its greatest state in 2250 BC. He’ll be in power for 50 years.
2100 BC – After the collapse of the Akkadian Empire around 2100 BC, the Sumerians regain control. Ur’s city has been restored.
2000 BC – The Elamites conquer Ur in 2000 BC.
1900 BC – The Assyrians gain supremacy in northern Mesopotamia around 1900 BC.
1792 BC – Hammurabi ascends to the throne of Babylon in 1792 BC. He establishes the Hammurabi Code, and Babylon quickly conquers most of Mesopotamia.
1781 BC – Assyrian King Shamshi-Adad passes away in 1781 BC. The Babylonians soon conquer the First Assyrian Empire.
1750 BC – Hammurabi dies in 1750 BC, and the First Babylonian Empire starts to disintegrate.
1595 BC – The Kassites conquer Babylon in 1595 BC.
1360 BC – The Assyrians regained power in 1360 BC.
1250 BC – Iron weapons and chariots are first used by the Assyrians about 1250 BC.
1225 BC – The Assyrians take control of Babylon in 1225 BC.
1115 BC – Under King Tiglath-Piliser I’s leadership, the Second Assyrian Empire reaches its pinnacle in 1115 BC.
1077 BC – Tiglath-Piliser dies in 1077 BC, which temporarily weakens the Assyrian Empire.
744 BC – The Assyrian Empire reaches its peak under Tiglath-Piliser III’s rule in 744 BC.
721 BC – Assyria is ruled by King Sargon II beginning in 721 BC. The empire gets more powerful.
709 BC – Sargon II conquers the city of Babylon in 709 BC.
705 BC – Sargon II dies in 705 BC, and Sennacherib takes over as ruler. He relocates it to Nineveh.
668 BC – Ashurbanipal succeeds as the last great King of Assyria in 668 BC. He builds the city of Nineveh a big library.
626 BC – Ashurbanipal dies in 626 BC, and Assyria starts to fall apart.
616 BC – Nabopolassar appoints himself king after regaining control of Babylon from the Assyrians in 616 BC. Beginning of the neo-Babylonian empire.
604 BC – Nabopolassar passes away in 604 BC, becoming Nebuchadnezzar II the new ruler of Babylon. He will reign for 43 years, reaching the height of the Babylonian Empire.
550 BC – Cyrus the Great ascends to power in 550 BC, establishing the Persian Empire.
539 BC – Cyrus the Great conquers Babylon in 539 BC, allowing the Jewish people to re-establish themselves in Israel.
522 BC – Darius I ascends to the throne of Persia in 522 BC. He increases the empire’s size and creates satrap-governed states inside it.
518 BC – Darius I builds Persepolis as the Persian Empire’s capital in 518 BC.
490 BC – Darius I attacks the Greeks in 490 BC. At the Battle of Marathon, he is defeated.
480 BC – With a sizable army, Xerxes I attempts to subjugate the Greeks in 480 BC. He ultimately retreats in defeat.
333 BC – Alexander the Great invades the region and overthrows the Persian Empire in 333 BC.