One of the first and oldest civilizations in history was ancient Egypt. It flourished for more than three thousand years and was situated along the Nile River in northeastern Africa. In general, historians present the history of ancient Egypt in one of two ways:
1. Dynasties: The first method involves employing the various Egyptian dynasties. These are the families that held sway and handed down Pharaoh’s rule from one generation to the next. There were more than 30 dynasties that controlled ancient Egypt, including the Ptolemaic Dynasty that the Greeks established. This may seem like a lot at first, but keep in mind that it took place over the course of three thousand years.
2. Kingdoms and Periods: Historians classify the many eras of ancient Egypt into three main kingdoms. There is a “intermediate” period following each kingdom. The Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms were the three kingdoms.
Here is a brief summary of the kingdoms, eras, and dynasties in the ancient Egyptian civilization’s timeline:
Dynasties I–III of the Early Dynastic Period (2950–2575 BC)
The beginning of the civilization in ancient Egypt. Menes, the first king of Egypt, brought the cultures of Upper and Lower Egypt together. He positioned Memphis, a city, as the nation’s capital in the middle of the two lands. Hieroglyphic writing, which would be crucial for keeping records and managing the government, was invented by the Egyptians at this time.
The first pyramid is constructed by the Pharaoh Djoser and the renowned Egyptian architect Imhotep near the conclusion of the Dynastic Period and the beginning of the Old Kingdom.
Dynasties IV–VIII of the Old Kingdom (2575-2150 BC)
The Great Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx are constructed as the fourth dynasty comes to an end. The Age of the Pyramids is another name for this period. In addition to being a time of peace, the fourth dynasty saw the rise of the sun deity Re as a major figure in Egyptian mythology.
The 7th and 8th dynasties are frail, and the Old Kingdom is on the verge of disintegrating. Famine and destitution are prevalent at the end of the Old Kingdom.
Dynasties IX–XI of the First Intermediate Period (2150–1975 BC)
Egypt divides once more into two nations. The first Intermediate era starts when the Old Kingdom comes to an end.
Middle Kingdom Dynasties XI–XIV (1975–1640 BC)
The Middle Kingdom begins when Pharaoh Mentuhotep II unifies the two regions of Egypt under his control. The royal tombs have been relocated close to Memphis in the north. To transfer water from the Nile to their crops, the Egyptians begin to employ irrigation.
(1640–1520 BC) Second Intermediate Period XV–XVIIth Dynasties
The Second Intermediate Period starts when the Middle Kingdom comes to an end. At the conclusion of the middle kingdom and throughout this time, certain dynasties only exist for a brief length of time. During this time, the horse and chariot are first used.
The New Kingdom’s Dynasties XVIII-XX (1520–1075 BC)
The New Kingdom represents the apex of the ancient Egyptian civilization’s prosperity. The Egyptian Empire reaches its pinnacle during this time, when the pharaohs capture the most territories.
1520 B.C. – Amhose I combines the realm, and the New realm is established in 1520 B.C.
1506 B.C. – Tuthmosis I becomes pharaoh in 1506 B.C. In the Valley of the Kings, he is the first person to be interred. This will serve as the primary location for the burial of Egyptian monarchs for the next 500 years.
1479 B.C. – Hatshepsut becomes pharaoh in 1479 B.C. She reigns for 22 years and is one of the most successful female pharaohs ever.
1386 B.C. – Amenhotep III becomes king of Egypt in 1386 BC. He oversaw the Egyptian civilisation as it rose to its pinnacle of prosperity, hegemony, and artistic achievement. He constructs the Luxor Temple.
1352 B.C. – Akhenaten altered Egyptian religion in 1352 B.C., converting it to a monotheistic faith. It was a significant transformation in life. However, it only lasted during his reign since his son Tutankhamun restored the ancient religious practices.
1279 B.C. – Rameses II becomes pharaoh in 1279 B.C. He would establish numerous monuments during his 67-year reign.
Dynasties XXI–XXIV of the Third Intermediate Period (1075–653 BC)
Egypt’s division marks the end of the New Kingdom. Start of the third intermediate period. Near the conclusion of this time, Egypt becomes weaker and is eventually subjugated by the Assyrian Empire.
Dynasties XXV-XXX of the Late Period (653 – 332 BC)
When the Assyrians leave Egypt and the natives take back authority from the vassals they left behind, the late era starts.
525 B.C. – The Persians invade Egypt in 525 B.C. and rule there for more than a century.
332 B.C. – Egypt is conquered by Alexander the Great and the Greeks in 332 B.C. He establishes Alexandria, a significant city.
Ptolemy in 305 B.C. The Ptolemic era starts when I ascends to the throne. The new capital is moved to Alexandria.
30 B.C. – Cleopatra VII, the last pharaoh, passes away in 30 B.C.