Afghanistan | History, Capital, Language, Flag, Facts & Geography of Afghanistan

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Information about Afghanistan:

Capital Kabul
Population 42,239,854 (Source: 2023 worldometer)
Major Cities Kabul, Kandahar, Mazar-i-Sharif, Herat, Jalalabad, Balkh, Ghazni, Kunduz, Bamyan
Borders Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to the north, Iran to the west, Pakistan to the east and south
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) $14.58 billion (2021 wikipedia)
Currency afghani (AFA)

Flag of Afghanistan:

Afghanistan Economy Key Industries:

Afghanistan Major Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, coal, copper

Afghanistan Agricultural Products: opium, wheat, fruits, nuts; wool, mutton, sheepskins, lambskins

Afghanistan Natural Resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

Afghanistan Major Exports: opium, fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems

Afghanistan Major Imports: capital goods, food, textiles, petroleum products

The Geography of Afghanistan:

Total Size of Afghanistan: 652,860 km² (source: AlJazeera)

Geographical Low Point of Afghanistan: Amu Darya 258 m

Geographical High Point of Afghanistan: Nowshak 7,485 m

Climate of Afghanistan: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

General Terrain of Afghanistan: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

World Region or Continent of Afghanistan:  Asia

Geographical Coordinates: 33 00 N, 65 00 E

Major Landforms of Afghanistan: Mount Noshaq, Hindu Kush Mountain Range, Pamir Mountains, Southwest Plateau, Northern Plains, Kyber Pass, Wakhan Corridor

Major Bodies of Water: Afghanistan is a landlocked and fairly dry country. Major rivers include Kabul River, Amu Darya, Harirud River, and the Helmand River. Lakes include Lake Zarkol, Kajaki Reservoir, the five lakes of Band-e Amir, and the Sardeh Dam.

Famous Places of Afghanistan: 

Minaret of Jam,
Gardens of Babur (Kabul),
Jama Masjid (Great Mosque) of Herat,
the five lakes of Band-e Amir,
Kabul Museum,
the cave complex of Tora Bora.

The People of  Afghanistan & Culture

Afghanistan Government Type: Islamic republic

Afghanistan Nationality: Afghan(s)

Afghanistan National Holiday: Independence Day, 19 August (1919)

Other Holidays of Afghanistan: 
Mawlid, Liberation Day (February 15),
New Year’s Day (March 21),
Mujahideen Victory Day (April 28),
Independence Day (August 19),
Eid ul-Fitr, Martyrs’ Day,
Day of Arafa, and
Eid al-Adha.

Afghanistan Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)

Afghanistan National Symbol: 

Animal – Snow Leopard
Nation Emblem – This symbol incorporates many important elements of Islam including the Islamic creed (called the Shahadah), a prayer map, wheat, and a mosque.

Afghanistan National Anthem or Song: Milli Surood (National Anthem)

Afghanistan Languages Spoken: Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashtu (official) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Afghanistan Religions: Sunni Muslim 80%, Shi’a Muslim 19%, other 1%

Some Time line of Afghanistan:

18th century – The Durrani Afghan Empire, which at its height included northern India and eastern Iran, and Ahmad Shah Durrani (reigned 1747–1772) mark the beginning of the modern state of Afghanistan.

1826 – Dost Mohammad Khan Barakzai succeeds to the throne of Afghanistan in 1826 after the Durrani dynasty falls.

First Anglo-Afghan War, 1839–1842: British forces enter effectively at first, overthrowing Dost Mohammad and installing Shah Shujah as his successor, but they are nearly all slaughtered as they flee.

Second Anglo-Afghan War, 1878–1880: British invasion forces Amir Sher Ali Khan to leave. Ali’s successor strikes a peace agreement, but combat resumes with the killing of a British diplomatic mission. The British decisively defeat the Afghans outside of Kandahar to put an end to the conflict after the Afghans defeat a British army at the Battle of Maiwand.

1893 – British diplomat Mortimer Durand and Afghan Emir Abdur Rahman Khan created the Durand Line as the border between British India and the Emirate of Afghanistan in 1893. The border’s exact location, though, is still up for debate.

1919 – Third Anglo-Afghan War: Invasion of British India by Afghanistan in 1919. Afghanistan wrests control of its foreign policy from Britain through a peace accord.

1926 – The Emirate of Afghanistan becomes the Kingdom of Afghanistan when Emir Amanullah Khan proclaims himself ruler in 1926.

1928–1929 – Due to military opposition to his reforms during the Afghan Civil War in 1928–1929, King Amanullah abdicates. Opposition soldiers briefly seize Kabul before being routed by Prince Mohammed Nadir Shah, Amanullah’s cousin.

1933: King Nadir Shah begins to modernize more gradually, but is killed. From 1933 through 1973, Mohammed Zahir Shah was in power and maintained neutrality.

1973 – In a non-violent coup, Mohammed Daoud Khan overthrows the king in 1973, becoming Afghanistan’s first president.

1978 – Communists led by Nur Muhammad Taraki overthrow President Mohammed Daoud Khan in a coup in 1978. They implement land distribution changes and repress political dissent, which sparks fierce opposition that degenerates into civil war very soon.

1979 – A power struggle led by the then-prime minister Hafizullah Amin results in Taraki’s murder in 1979. Unhappy with Amin’s administration, the Soviet Union invades, seizes Kabul, assassinates Amin, and imposes a more oppressive communist dictatorship.

1979 to 1989 – The Soviet-Afghan War, which lasted from 1979 to 1989, began when a sizable contingent of Soviet forces were sent to stabilize Afghanistan.

Resistance groups receive military assistance from the US and Pakistan. Six million Afghans flee their country, and between 560,000 and two million people are killed.

1989: After the Soviet forces withdraw, a new civil war breaks out in Afghanistan. Between 1990 and 2001, an estimated 400,000 Afghans were slain.

1996 – Taliban take over Kabul in 1996 and implement a strict interpretation of Islam.

Following the September 11 attacks on the US, the US, NATO, and other allies militarily act in Afghanistan from 2001 until 2021. Kabul is liberated from the Taliban, and Hamid Karzai takes charge of an interim power-sharing administration.

The Taliban reorganize and retake control of substantial portions of the countryside, making the conflict the US’s longest combat commitment.

2014 – NATO formally concludes its combat mission in Afghanistan, turning the country over to Afghan forces, who are now battling a raging insurgency with the assistance of US forces. In the 20-year war, 176,000–212,000 people have died.

2020 – After failing to militarily defeat the Taliban, the US and Taliban sign the Doha Agreement, which stipulates that Afghan land won’t be used as a base for militant strikes against the US and its allies in exchange for the withdrawal of US troops.

2021 – Taliban conquer Kabul in 2021 after US forces leave.

Interesting Facts about Afghanistan:

The world’s earliest oil paintings are found in Afghanistan.

Afghanistan has had 26 distinct flags during its history.

Since 1919, Afghanistan has been a sovereign nation.

Citizens were not registered throughout the 1980–1990 war in Afghanistan.

Afghanistan celebrates its New Year on March 21.

Each Thursday in Herat, Afghanistan, there is a Poetry Night.

Kabuli Pulao is the most widely consumed meal in Afghanistan.

The 41st-largest nation in the world is Afghanistan.

One of the landlocked nations is Afghanistan.

Afghanistan’s primary industry is agriculture.

In Afghanistan, most stores are closed on Friday.

It is forbidden to use alcohol in Afghanistan.

The natural resources in Afghanistan are abundant.

Hand-woven rugs are one of Afghanistan’s principal exports.

In Afghanistan, it is against the law to shake hands with someone who is the opposite sex.

Buzkashi is the national sport of Afghanistan.

Afghanistan only has one Jew residing there.

Afghanistan views dogs as dirty animals.

Kabul is Afghanistan’s capital city.

Afghanis is the name of Afghanistan’s official currency.

Iran, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and China all share a border with Afghanistan.

In Afghanistan, cell phones serve as status symbols.

In the year 330 BC, Alexander the Great took control of the city of Herat.

Up until the Taliban destroyed them in 2001, the largest Buddha statues in the world were constructed in Afghanistan.

Afghanistan is the largest opium producer in the world.

In Afghanistan, Buddhism and Zoroastrianism were the two main faiths before to the arrival of Islam.

In 2004, Hamid Karzai was inaugurated as Afghanistan’s first democratically elected leader

The largest city in Afghanistan is Kabul.

Afghanistan means “The Land of Afghans” in English.

Pashto and Dari are the two official languages of Afghanistan.

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